Limited literature is available assessing nephrotoxicity with prolonged β-lactam infusions. This study compared the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with a prolonged β-lactam infusion or an intermittent infusion. This was a retrospective, matched-cohort study at an academic medical center from July 2006 to September 2015. Adult patients who received piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP), cefepime (FEP), or meropenem (MEM) for at least 48 h were evaluated. Patients were excluded for preexisting renal dysfunction or pregnancy. The primary outcome was difference in incidence of AKI evaluated using the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage) criteria. Patients in the intermittent group were matched 3:1 to patients in the prolonged-infusion group based on the following: β-lactam agent, age, gender, Charlson comorbidity index, baseline creatinine clearance, hypotension, receipt of vancomycin, and treatment in an intensive care unit. A total of 2,390 patients were included in the matched analysis, with 1,700 receiving intermittent infusions and 690 receiving prolonged infusion. The incidence of AKI was similar in the prolonged-infusion group to that in the intermittent-infusion group (21.6% versus 18.6%; P = 0.1). After multivariate regression, prolonged infusion was not associated with increased odds of AKI (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.83 to 1.39). Independent predictors of AKI included TZP therapy, concomitant nephrotoxins, hypotension, and heart failure. Although AKIs were numerically more common in patients receiving prolonged β-lactam infusions than those receiving intermittent infusions, prolonged infusion was not an independent risk factor for AKI.

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Published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, v. 61, issue 10, e00871-17, p. 1-7.

Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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This project was supported by the NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences through grant no. UL1TR001998.