Acute kidney injury (AKI) increases during empirical antimicrobial therapy with the combination of piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) and vancomycin (VAN) compared to the number of incidences with monotherapy or the combination of cefepime and VAN. Limited data regarding the impact of meropenem (MEM) combined with VAN exist. This study examined the AKI incidence among patients treated with MEM plus VAN (MEM+VAN) or TZP+VAN. Data were collected from the University of Kentucky Center for Clinical and Translational Science Enterprise Data Trust from September 2007 through October 2015. Adults without previous renal disease who received MEM+VAN or TZP+VAN for at least 2 days were included. AKI was assessed using risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage (RIFLE) criteria. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was utilized to control for differences between groups. In total, 10,236 patients met inclusion criteria, with 9,898 receiving TZP+VAN and 338 receiving MEM+VAN. AKI occurred in 15.4% of MEM+VAN patients and in 27.4% of TZP+VAN patients (P < 0.001). TZP+VAN was associated with increased AKI compared to the level with MEM+VAN (odds ratio [OR], 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82 to 3.52), after controlling for confounders. Use of MEM+VAN should be considered an appropriate alternative therapy to TZP+VAN if nephrotoxicity is a major concern. The results of this study demonstrate that judicial use of TZP+VAN for empirical coverage of infection is needed.

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Published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, v. 62, issue 7, e00264-18, p. 1-6.

Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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The project described was supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, through grant number UL1TR001998.