Glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) is a well-known mobile regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which provides broad spectrum systemic immunity in response to localized foliar pathogenic infections. We show that G3P-derived foliar immunity is also activated in response to genetically-regulated incompatible interactions with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Using gene knock-down we show that G3P is essential for strain-specific exclusion of non-desirable root-nodulating bacteria and the associated foliar pathogen immunity in soybean. Grafting studies show that while recognition of rhizobium incompatibility is root driven, bacterial exclusion requires G3P biosynthesis in the shoot. Biochemical analyses support shoot-to-root transport of G3P during incompatible rhizobia interaction. We describe a root-shoot-root signaling mechanism which simultaneously enables the plant to exclude non-desirable nitrogen-fixing rhizobia in the root and pathogenic microbes in the shoot.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
This work was supported by NSF (IOS #1457121), USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (Hatch project 1014539), and Kentucky Soybean Promotion Board grants to A.K. and P.K. and faculty start-up funds by Iowa State University to A.K.S.
All data presented here and biological materials used are available upon request to the corresponding author. The source data underlying Figs. 1–7 and Supplementary Figs. 2–14 are provided as a Source Data file. Microscopy data is available via Figshare at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.9976829. RNA-seq data are available at the NCBI GEO database under accession code GSE139303.
Shine, M. B.; Gao, Qing-Ming; Chowda-Reddy, R. V.; Singh, Asheesh K.; Kachroo, Pradeep; and Kachroo, Aardra, "Glycerol-3-Phosphate Mediates Rhizobia-Induced Systemic Signaling in Soybean" (2019). Plant Pathology Faculty Publications. 99.
41467_2019_13318_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (187 kB)
Peer review file
41467_2019_13318_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (89 kB)
Description of additional supplementary files
41467_2019_13318_MOESM4_ESM.xlsx (21 kB)
Supplementary data 1
41467_2019_13318_MOESM5_ESM.xlsx (11 kB)
Supplementary data 2
41467_2019_13318_MOESM6_ESM.xlsx (29 kB)
Supplementary data 3
41467_2019_13318_MOESM7_ESM.xlsx (50 kB)
Supplementary data 4
41467_2019_13318_MOESM8_ESM.xlsx (27 kB)
Supplementary data 5
41467_2019_13318_MOESM9_ESM.xlsx (27 kB)
Supplementary data 6
41467_2019_13318_MOESM10_ESM.pdf (144 kB)
41467_2019_13318_MOESM11_ESM.xlsx (150731 kB)