It has been revealed from the path-integral formulation of the hadronic tensor that there are connected sea and disconnected sea partons. The former is responsible for the Gottfried sum rule violation primarily and evolves the same way as the valence. Therefore, the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations can be extended to accommodate them separately. We discuss its consequences and implications vis-á-vis lattice calculations.

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Published in Physical Review D, v. 96, issue 3, 033001, p. 1-9.

© 2017 American Physical Society

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This work is partially support by the U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-SC0013065.