It has been revealed from the path-integral formulation of the hadronic tensor that there are connected sea and disconnected sea partons. The former is responsible for the Gottfried sum rule violation primarily and evolves the same way as the valence. Therefore, the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations can be extended to accommodate them separately. We discuss its consequences and implications vis-á-vis lattice calculations.
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This work is partially support by the U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-SC0013065.
Liu, Keh-Fei, "Evolution Equations for Connected and Disconnected Sea Parton Distributions" (2017). Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications. 535.