Tunnel malposition is one of the most common technical reasons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction failure. Small changes in tunnel placement can result in significant differences in outcome. More anatomic placement of the tunnels can lead to greater knee stability and a more accurate reproduction of native knee kinematics. This Technical Note describes 2 tibial tunnel–independent methods to obtain anatomic femoral tunnel placement. The all-inside anteromedial portal technique requires only minimal surgical incisions but allows precise femoral tunnel placement. However, hyperflexion of the knee is required, adequate surgical assistance is necessary, and this technique may be susceptible to graft-tunnel mismatch. The outside-in technique may be more beneficial in obese patients, skeletally immature patients, or revision cases. On the downside, it does require an additional 2-cm surgical incision. This article also provides surgical pearls to fine-tune tibial tunnel placement.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Burnham, Jeremy M.; Malempati, Chaitu S.; Carpiaux, Aaron; Ireland, Mary Lloyd; and Johnson, Darren L., "Anatomic Femoral and Tibial Tunnel Placement During Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Anteromedial Portal All-Inside and Outside-In Techniques" (2017). Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine Faculty Publications. 15.