This paper provides an overview of current progress in the technological advances and the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, as presented by participants of the Fourth Annual DBS Think Tank, which was convened in March 2016 in conjunction with the Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration at the University of Florida, Gainesveille FL, USA. The Think Tank discussions first focused on policy and advocacy in DBS research and clinical practice, formation of registries, and issues involving the use of DBS in the treatment of Tourette Syndrome. Next, advances in the use of neuroimaging and electrochemical markers to enhance DBS specificity were addressed. Updates on ongoing use and developments of DBS for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, Alzheimer's disease, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, obesity, addiction were presented, and progress toward innovation(s) in closed-loop applications were discussed. Each section of these proceedings provides updates and highlights of new information as presented at this year's international Think Tank, with a view toward current and near future advancement of the field.

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Published in Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, v. 10, article 38, p. 1-21.

Copyright © 2016 Deeb, Giordano, Rossi, Mogilner, Gunduz, Judy, Klassen, Butson, Van Horne, Deny, Dougherty, Rowell, Gerhardt, Smith, Ponce, Walker, Bronte-Stewart, Mayberg, Chizeck, Langevin, Volkmann, Ostrem, Shute, Jimenez-Shahed, Foote, Wagle Shukla, Rossi, Oh, Pourfar, Rosenberg, Silburn, de Hemptine, Starr, Denison, Akbar, Grill and Okun.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

Due to the large number of authors, only the first 30 and the authors affiliated with the University of Kentucky are listed in the author section above. For the complete list of authors, please download this article.

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National Institutes of Health, National Parkinson Foundation, Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research and the Tourette Association of America provided funding for the previous studies presented in this paper.

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