Year of Publication



Martin School of Public Policy and Administration

Executive Summary

Rural schools have been consistently under examined compared with urban and suburban counterparts. This paper examines the effects of school location, specifically rural schools, on student academic achievement in 28 countries, using TIMSS 2011 data for fourth grade students. After controlling for student, family, teacher, and school characteristics, as well as country fixed effects, rural schools in 5 countries have shown significant and positive effects on student math achievement, and those in another 5 countries have shown significant and negative effects.