We propose a learning innovation called 3-in-1 Hybrid environment as a solution for educational institutions to meet the challenge of balancing campus reopening against public health risks amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Our proposed innovation provides students options to attend class synchronously (either face-to-face or remote) or asynchronously (online) in an interactive learning environment that promotes emotional, behavioral, and cognitive engagement. We designed and implemented a large Marketing Management class with over 800 students as a 3-in-1 course. We examined its effectiveness in an empirical study and found that (1) students have a positive attitude toward 3-in-1 Hybrid learning; (2) they show a high level of synchronous attendance and a low number of missed quizzes and homework; and (3) their quiz performance is a strong mediator on the relationship between synchronous attendance and actual learning. Our study provides empirical evidence to support the promises of the proposed 3-in-1 Hybrid environment to address logistical and pedagogical challenges of student engagement in large class learning.

Document Type


Publication Date


Notes/Citation Information

Published in Marketing Education Review.

© 2020 Society for Marketing Advances

This is an Accepted Manuscript version of the following article, accepted for publication in Marketing Education Review.

Hapke, H., Lee-Post, A., & Dean, T. (2020). 3-in-1 hybrid learning environment. Marketing Education Review, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/10528008.2020.1855989

It is deposited under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


Available for download on Wednesday, June 29, 2022