Prolonged exploitation of coastal resources has caused extensive ecological harm. The alarming decline in the condition of the marine environment has become a matter of serious public concern. This Article will examine some of the environmental problems of the coastal zone and the resulting institutional responses. The first part will delineate a number of problems in the nation's coastal areas. The second part will review the doctrines of property law associated with the ownership of littoral land and their relation to land-use control measures. The third part will evaluate recent coastal management legislation. The fourth part will consider constitutional restraints on governmental action. Finally, the development of a sound public policy dealing with both the needs of the coastal environment and the difficulties of relating this policy to other societal goals will be discussed.
Richard C. Ausness, Land Use Controls in Coastal Areas, 9 Cal. W. L. Rev. 391 (1973).