This report summarizes several years of research relating to damage to concrete and aggregates undergoing freezing and thawing. Basic principles involving freezing and attendant pressures are considered. Application of these principles to the evaluation of concrete was accomplished in experiments on concrete having low and high air contents. The effects of air entrainment upon freeze-thaw resistance were demonstrated.

Freeze-thaw characteristics of saturated aggregates relative to their physical properties such as porosity, absorption and bulk specific gravity were studied by submerging individual particles in pre-chilled mercury. Pressures associated with popouts in concrete were monitored and are presented along with accompanying theoretical considerations.

Report Date


Report Number

No. 287

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The opinions, findings, and conclusions in this report are not necessarily those of the Department of Highways or the Bureau of Public Roads.