This report summarizes several years of research relating to damage to concrete and aggregates undergoing freezing and thawing. Basic principles involving freezing and attendant pressures are considered. Application of these principles to the evaluation of concrete was accomplished in experiments on concrete having low and high air contents. The effects of air entrainment upon freeze-thaw resistance were demonstrated.

Freeze-thaw characteristics of saturated aggregates relative to physical properties such as porosity, absorption, and bulk specific gravity were studied by submerging individual particles in pre-chilled mercury. Pressures associated with popouts in concrete were monitored and are presented along with accompanying theoretical considerations.

Report Date


Report Number

No. 454

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The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the Bureau of Highways. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.