This report summarizes several years of research relating to damage to concrete and aggregates undergoing freezing and thawing. Basic principles involving freezing and attendant pressures are considered. Application of these principles to the evaluation of concrete was accomplished in experiments on concrete having low and high air contents.
Freeze-thaw characteristics of saturated aggregates relative to physical properties such as porosity, absorption, and bulk specific gravity were studied by submerging individual particles in pre-chilled mercury. Pressures associated with pop-outs in concrete were monitored and are presented along with accompanying theoretical considerations.
Digital Object Identifier
Havens, James H. and Deen, Robert C., "A Possible Explanation of Concrete Pop-Outs" (1976). Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report. 859.