Underground conduits have been used for hundreds of years for drainage and water supply purposes. With the advent of railway and auto-mobile transportation, the use of underground conduits for drainage purposes beneath the roadways increased greatly. It soon became apparent that there was a definite need for knowledge concerning the manufacture, installation, and field behavior of pipe culverts. Accordingly, in the first half of the century, much attention and research has been directed toward the development and establishment of acceptable techniques and specifications fot the manufacture and installation of pipe culverts. This work has been accomplished by many individuals and organizations.

Report Date


Report Number

No. 198

Digital Object Identifier