Manganese is a common constituent of Kentucky rocks and soils and, along with iron is one of the most widespread causes of problems in groundwater supplies. Rainwater seeping through soils and bedrock dissolves manganese and carries it in the groundwater system to wells and springs. In deep, slow-moving systems that lack oxygen, manganese remains in solution. Under oxidizing conditions, however, such as in shallow groundwater systems or where the water is exposed to air, manganese combines with oxygen to form black particles that can clog plumbing fixtures and stain containers and clothing.
Information Circular 14
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Fisher, R. Stephen and Davidson, Bart, "Groundwater Quality in Kentucky: Manganese" (2007). Kentucky Geological Survey Information Circular. 12.