Sustainability in manufacturing can be evaluated at product, process and system levels. The 6R methodology for sustainability enhancement in manufacturing processes includes: reduced use of materials, energy, water and other resources; reusing of products/components; recovery and recycling of materials/components; remanufacturing of products; and redesigning of products to utilize recovered materials/resources. Although manufacturing processes can be evaluated by their productivity, quality and cost, process sustainability assessment makes it a complete evaluation. This paper presents a 6R-based evaluation method for sustainable manufacturing in terms of specific metrics within six major metrics clusters: environmental impact, energy consumption, waste management, cost, resource utilization and society/personnel health/operational safety. Manufacturing processes such as casting, welding, turning, milling, drilling, grinding, etc., can be evaluated using this methodology. A case study for machining processes is presented as an example based on the proposed metrics.
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The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the research school SiCoMaP funded by the Knowledge Foundation and GKN Aerospace Engine Systems.
Hernández, Ana E. Bonilla; Lu, Tao; Beno, Tomas; Fredriksson, Claes; and Jawahir, Ibrahim S., "Process Sustainability Evaluation for Manufacturing of a Component with the 6R Application" (2019). Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing Faculty Publications. 10.