Autologous hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (AHSCT) has been employed as treatment for severe systemic sclerosis (SSc) with high risk of organ failure. In the last 25 years overall survival and treatment-related mortality have improved, in accordance with a better patient selection and mobilization and conditioning protocols. This review analyzes the evidence from the last 5 years for AHSCT-treated SSc patients, considering in particular the outcomes related to interstitial lung disease. There are increasing data supporting the use of AHSCT in selected patients with rapidly progressive SSc. However, some unmet needs remain, such as an accurate patient selection, pre-transplantation analysis to identify subclinical conditions precluding the transplantation, and the alternatives for post-transplant ILD recurrence.

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Published in Cells, v. 11, issue 5, 843.

© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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This research received no external funding.