Background: Acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery significantly associates with morbidity and mortality. Despite not requiring cardiopulmonary bypass, transcatheter aortic valve replacement patients have an incidence of post-procedural acute kidney injury similar to patients who undergo open surgical aortic valve replacement. Packed red blood cell transfusion has been associated with morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. We hypothesized that packed red blood cell transfusion independently associates with acute kidney injury after transcatheter aortic valve replacement, after accounting for other risk factors.

Methods: This is a single-center retrospective cohort study of 116 patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Post-transcatheter aortic valve replacement acute kidney injury was defined by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes serum creatinine-based criteria. Univariate comparisons between patients with and without post-transcatheter aortic valve replacement acute kidney injury were made for clinical characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess independent association of packed red blood cell transfusion with post-transcatheter aortic valve replacement acute kidney injury (adjusting for pre-procedural renal function and other important clinical parameters).

Results: Acute kidney injury occurred in 20 (17.2%) subjects. Total number of packed red blood cells transfused independently associated with post-procedure acute kidney injury (OR = 1.67 per unit, 95% CI 1.13–2.47, P = 0.01) after adjusting for pre-procedure estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR = 0.97 per ml/min/1.73m2, 95% CI 0.94–1.00, P = 0.05), nadir hemoglobin (OR = 0.88 per g/dL increase, CI 0.61–1.27, P = 0.50), and post-procedure maximum number of concurrent inotropes and vasopressors (OR = 2.09 per inotrope or vasopressor, 95% CI 1.19–3.67, P = 0.01).

Conclusion: Packed red blood cell transfusion, along with post-procedure use of inotropes and vasopressors, independently associate with acute kidney injury after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathobiology underlying these associations.

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Published in BMC Anesthesiology, v. 19, article no. 99, p. 1-10.

© The Author(s). 2019

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Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. UT Southwestern O'Brien Kidney Research Core Center (NIH P30DK079328; AAF PI of a Pilot and Feasibility grant awarded as part of this overall P grant).

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The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request and with an approved data use agreement in place between University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and the requesting researcher’s institution.