Incidence of low grade well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NET) is on the rise. The North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society estimates that the United States has more than 150,000 gastroenteropancreatic NET patients. About 10% of metastatic NETs can be unknown primary, and due to their rarity, dedicated treatment algorithms and regimens are not defined. Combination of capecitabine and temozolomide (CAPTEM) is one of the systemic treatments used in gastroenteropancreatic NETs. We explored clinical activity of CAPTEM in NET of unknown primary. Methods. Retrospective review of NET of unknown primary managed at the University of Kentucky over the past five years (2012–2016). Result. 56 patients with NET of unknown primary were identified; 12 patients were treated with CAPTEM. Median progression-free survival on CAPTEM in grade II and grade III NET of unknown primary was 10.8 and 7 months, respectively. Six patients showed reduction in metastatic tumor volume at three-month CT scan. Three patients had stable disease and three patients showed disease progression at the first surveillance scan. Common side-effects were as follows: four patients developed grade II thrombocytopenia, three patients developed grade I lymphocytopenia, and two patients developed hand foot syndrome (grades I and III). Six patients developed grade I fatigue. Conclusion. CAPTEM should be considered for grades I and II NET of unknown primary, especially in the case of visceral crisis or bulky disease.

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Published in Journal of Oncology, v. 2018, article 3519247, p. 1-6.

Copyright © 2018 Aman Chauhan et al.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Preliminary finding of our study was published in the proceedings of American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting in 2017; J Clin Oncol 35, 2017 (suppl; abstr e15691).