Background. Small vessel vasculitis commonly affects the kidney and can progress to end-stage renal disease. The goal of this study is to compare outcomes of patients who received a renal transplant as a result of small vessel vasculitis (group A) with those who received kidney transplants because of other causes (group B). Methods. This is a retrospective analysis of United Network for Organ Sharing registry data for adult primary kidney transplants from January 2000 to December 2014. Group A patients (N = 2196) were compared with a group B (N = 6588); groups were case matched for age, race, sex, donor type, and year of transplant in a 1:3 ratio. Results. Renal and patient survivals were better in the group A (P < 0.001). New-onset diabetes after transplant developed in 8.3% of the group A and 11.3% of group B (P < 0.001). Seventeen (0.8%) patients in group A developed recurrent disease. Of these, 7 patients had graft failure, 3 of which were due to disease recurrence. Group A patients had significantly higher risk of developing posttransplant solid organ malignancies (11.3% vs 9.3%, P = 0.006) and lymphoproliferative disorder (1.3% vs 0.8%, P = 0.026). Independent predictors of graft failure and patient mortality were recipients' morbid obesity, diabetes, age, and dialysis duration (hazard ratio of 1.7, 1.4, 1.1/10 years, and 1.1/year for graft failure, and 1.7, 1.7, 1.6/10 years and 1.1/year for patient mortality, respectively). Conclusions. Renal transplantation in patients with has favorable long-term graft and patient outcomes with a low disease recurrence rate. However, they may have a higher risk of developing posttransplant malignancies.

Document Type


Publication Date


Notes/Citation Information

Published in Transplantation Direct, v. 4, issue 3, e350, p. 1-9.

Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Transplantation Direct. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


Funding Information

The project described herein was supported by the NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences through grant number UL1TR001998.