Year of Publication



Arts and Sciences



Degree Name

Bachelor of Science

Faculty Advisor

Dr. Matthew Kim


This paper examines several popular approaches in the United States for enhancing early childhood literacy and language development in two special education populations— d/Deaf or hard-of-hearing (d/DHH) students and students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In addition to examining the effectiveness of these approaches, I adopt an educational equity lens to describe how variability in implementation can impact outcomes for these children. Based on my critical reading of the literature, I offer three broad recommendations for school psychologists: (1) Carefully consider dosage and fidelity of implementation, (2) Use caution when modifying existing interventions for these populations, and (3) Increase in-service training and networks of support. This paper is intended for school psychologists who may not have time to read the latest literature and are looking for better ways to implement language and literacy programs into their practice. At the end of this review, school psychologists will know the latest research on supporting language and literacy outcomes for d/DHH students and students with ASD, and how to better implement programs in their practice with an equity mindset.