This consensus statement update reflects our current published knowledge and opinion about clinical signs, pathogenesis, epidemiology, treatment, complications, and control of strangles. This updated statement emphasizes varying presentations in the context of existing underlying immunity and carrier states of strangles in the transmission of disease. The statement redefines the “gold standard” for detection of possible infection and reviews the new technologies available in polymerase chain reaction diagnosis and serology and their use in outbreak control and prevention. We reiterate the importance of judicious use of antibiotics in horses with strangles. This updated consensus statement reviews current vaccine technology and the importance of linking vaccination with currently advocated disease control and prevention programs to facilitate the eradication of endemic infections while safely maintaining herd immunity. Differentiation between immune responses to primary and repeated exposure of subclinically infected animals and responses induced by vaccination is also addressed.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
One of the authors (Timoney) shares a patent on the SeM sequence and its use (US Patent # 6,458,358 Oct. 1, 2002). One of the authors (Waller) shares patents on a live attenuated strangles vaccine strain (US8187610), a diagnostic test for S. equi (US20110201007) and internal control strain (US20150051082); all rights reside with the Animal Health Trust.
Additional Supporting Information may be found online in the supporting information tab for this article: Data S1. Population structure of S. equi.
Boyle, A. G.; Timoney, John F.; Newton, J. R.; Hines, M. T.; Waller, A. S.; and Buchanan, B. R., "Streptococcus equi Infections in Horses: Guidelines for Treatment, Control, and Prevention of Strangles—Revised Consensus Statement" (2018). Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications. 20.