The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory repertoire of genes related to obligate hematophagy, host-symbiont interactions, and several mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In addition, we document the presence of multiple putative lateral gene transfer events. Genome sequencing and annotation establish a solid foundation for future research on mechanisms of insecticide resistance, human-bed bug and symbiont-bed bug associations, and unique features of bed bug biology that contribute to the unprecedented success of C. lectularius as a human ectoparasite.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Funding for genome sequencing, assembly and automated annotation was provided by NHGRI grant U54 HG003273 to R.A.G. Funding for bed bug lines development was provided by Blanton J. Whitmire endowment, Housing and Urban Development (NCHHU-00017-13), National Science Foundation (IOS-1052238), Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (2013-5-35 MBE) to Cob. S. Funding for preparation of genomic DNA and RNA for sequencing and for manual curation of some of the genes was provided by NIH (GM070559-9) to S.R.P. Funding for manual curation and other analyses were provided by the Royal Society of New Zealand Marsden Fast Start Grant (11-UOO-124) to E.J.D., Fralin Life Sciences Institutes and Virginia Agriculture Experimental Station to Z.N.A., European Research Council (ERC-CoG 616346) to A.K., Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG): Pe1798/2-1 to N.P., Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG): PA2044/1-1 to K.A.P., Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG): collaborative research center SFB 1047 ‘Insect timing,’ Project A1 to P.M., The Zukunftskonzept at TU Dresden funded by the Exzellenzinitiative of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft to K.R., Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG): BL469/7-1 to Wo.B., Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG): 766/11-1 to R.P., European Research Council grant 260986 to P.J., Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council to J.-J.Z., University of Cincinnati Faculty Development Research Grant and Ohio Supercomputer Center Research Allocation to J.B.B., Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship PIOF-GA- 2011–303312 to R.M.W., National Science Foundation (DEB-1257053) to J.H.W., and Swiss National Science Foundation awards 31003A-125350 and 31003A-143936 to E.M.Z.
Data for the Cimex lectularius genome has been deposited in the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Bioproject database under the accession code PRJNA167477. Raw genomic sequence data is deposited in the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ sequence read archive under the accession codes SRX498126, SRX498127, SRX498128, and SRX498129. The genome assembly has been deposited in GenBank under the accession code GCA_000648675.1. RNA-seq datasets used in gene prediction have been deposited to the in GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ sequence read archive under the accession codes SRX906994 and SRX907005.
Benoit, Joshua B.; Adelman, Zach N.; Reinhardt, Klaus; Dolan, Amanda; Poelchau, Monica; Jennings, Emily C.; Szuter, Elise M.; Hagan, Richard W.; Gujar, Hemant; Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Zhu, Fang; Mohan, M.; Nelson, David R.; Rosendale, Andrew J.; Derst, Christian; Resnik, Valentina; Wernig, Sebastian; Menegazzi, Pamela; Wegener, Christian; Peschel, Nicolai; Hendershot, Jacob M.; Blenau, Wolfgang; Predel, Reinhard; Johnston, Paul R.; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Nauen, Ralf; Schorn, Corinna; Ott, Mark-Christoph; Maiwald, Frank; and Palli, Subba R., "Unique Features of a Global Human Ectoparasite Identified Through Sequencing of the Bed Bug Genome" (2016). Entomology Faculty Publications. 83.
Supplementary Information. Supplementary Figures 1-42, Supplementary Notes 1-22 and Supplementary References
ncomms10165-s2.xlsx (11 kB)
Supplementary Data 1. Sequencing, assembly, annotation statistics and accession numbers
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Supplementary Data 2. A summary of all curated genes, pseudogenes, mRNAs, and pseudogenic transcripts.
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Supplementary Data 3. Antioxidant gene families and their function
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Supplementary Data 4. Details of antioxidant genes identified from C. lectularius genome.
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Supplementary Data 5. Primary and secondary antioxidants genes identified in the bed bug genome. Accession numbers of homologs from Drosophila melanogaster, Rhondnius prolixus, Anopheles gambiae, Pediculus humanus and Tribolium casteneum are shown.
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Supplementary Data 6. Details of ClOr family genes and proteins.
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Supplementary Data 7. Details of ClIr family genes and proteins.
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Supplementary Data 8. Details of ClGr family genes and proteins.
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Supplementary Data 9. Clock genes identified in the bed bug genome.
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Supplementary Data 10. Number of putative cuticle protein genes per family in the bed bug genome.
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Supplementary Data 11. Cuticle protein-encoding gene glusters in the bed bug genome.
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Supplementary Data 12. Summary of the repertoire of digestive genes in Cimex lectularius.
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Supplementary Data 13. Number of loci within the genomes of arthropod species encoding the five classes of histones.
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Supplementary Data 14. Cimex autophagy associated genes.
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Supplementary Data 15. Cimex heat shock associated genes.
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Supplementary Data 16. Summary information for all annotated Hox genes.
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Supplementary Data 17. Putative prepropeptides and peptide receptors predicted from the bed bug genome.
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Supplementary Data 18. Putative aminergic receptors predicted from the bed bug genome.
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Supplementary Data 19. B vitamin metabolic genes.
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Supplementary Data 20. List of UDP-glycosyltransferase genes in Cimex lectularius genome
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Supplementary Data 21. Bacterial Scaffolds in the C. lectularius assembly.
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Supplementary Data 22. P450 genes identified in the genome.
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Supplementary Data 23. ABC Transporters identified in the bed bug genome.
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Supplementary Data 24. Carboxyl esterase identified in the bed bug genome.
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Supplementary Data 25. Glutathione-s- transferases identified in the bed bug genome.
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Supplementary Data 26. Nuclear receptors identified in the bed bug genome.
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Supplementary Data 27. Genes related to development and reproduction identified in the bed bug genome.
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Supplementary Data 28. BUSCO quality data from the bed bug genome.
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Supplementary Data 29. Immune genes from the bed bug genome.
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Supplementary Data 30. Sex determination genes.
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Supplementary Data 31. Transcription factors with putative DNA binding motifs from the bed bug genome.
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Supplementary Data 32. Transcription factors without putative DNA binding motifs from the bed bug genomes.
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Supplementary Data 33. Cegma Statistics based on 248 CEGs suggest a high level of completeness for the bedbug genome.