Joshua B. Benoit, University of Cincinnati
Zach N. Adelman, Virginia Tech University
Klaus Reinhardt, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Germany
Amanda Dolan, University of Rochester
Monica Poelchau, National Agricultural Library
Emily C. Jennings, University of Cincinnati
Elise M. Szuter, University of Cincinnati
Richard W. Hagan, University of Cincinnati
Hemant Gujar, University of KentuckyFollow
Jayendra Nath Shukla, University of KentuckyFollow
Fang Zhu, University of KentuckyFollow
M. Mohan, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, India
David R. Nelson, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center
Andrew J. Rosendale, University of Cincinnati
Christian Derst, University of Cologne, Germany
Valentina Resnik, Goethe University - Frankfurt, Germany
Sebastian Wernig, Goethe University - Frankfurt, Germany
Pamela Menegazzi, University of Würzburg, Germany
Christian Wegener, University of Würzburg, Germany
Nicolai Peschel, University of Würzburg, Germany
Jacob M. Hendershot, University of Cincinnati
Wolfgang Blenau, University of Cologne, Germany
Reinhard Predel, University of Cologne, Germany
Paul R. Johnston, Freie Universitaet, Germany
Panagiotis Ioannidis, University of Geneva, Switzerland
Robert M. Waterhouse, University of Geneva, Switzerland
Ralf Nauen, Bayer CropScience AG, Germany
Corinna Schorn, Bayer CropScience AG, Germany
Mark-Christoph Ott, Bayer CropScience AG, Germany
Frank Maiwald, Bayer CropScience AG, Germany
Subba R. Palli, University of KentuckyFollow


The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory repertoire of genes related to obligate hematophagy, host-symbiont interactions, and several mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In addition, we document the presence of multiple putative lateral gene transfer events. Genome sequencing and annotation establish a solid foundation for future research on mechanisms of insecticide resistance, human-bed bug and symbiont-bed bug associations, and unique features of bed bug biology that contribute to the unprecedented success of C. lectularius as a human ectoparasite.

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Notes/Citation Information

Published in Nature Communications, v. 7, article 10165, p. 1-10.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit

Due to the large number of authors, only the first 30 and the authors affiliated with the University of Kentucky are listed in the author section above. For the complete list of authors, please download this article.

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Funding Information

Funding for genome sequencing, assembly and automated annotation was provided by NHGRI grant U54 HG003273 to R.A.G. Funding for bed bug lines development was provided by Blanton J. Whitmire endowment, Housing and Urban Development (NCHHU-00017-13), National Science Foundation (IOS-1052238), Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (2013-5-35 MBE) to Cob. S. Funding for preparation of genomic DNA and RNA for sequencing and for manual curation of some of the genes was provided by NIH (GM070559-9) to S.R.P. Funding for manual curation and other analyses were provided by the Royal Society of New Zealand Marsden Fast Start Grant (11-UOO-124) to E.J.D., Fralin Life Sciences Institutes and Virginia Agriculture Experimental Station to Z.N.A., European Research Council (ERC-CoG 616346) to A.K., Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG): Pe1798/2-1 to N.P., Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG): PA2044/1-1 to K.A.P., Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG): collaborative research center SFB 1047 ‘Insect timing,’ Project A1 to P.M., The Zukunftskonzept at TU Dresden funded by the Exzellenzinitiative of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft to K.R., Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG): BL469/7-1 to Wo.B., Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG): 766/11-1 to R.P., European Research Council grant 260986 to P.J., Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council to J.-J.Z., University of Cincinnati Faculty Development Research Grant and Ohio Supercomputer Center Research Allocation to J.B.B., Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship PIOF-GA- 2011–303312 to R.M.W., National Science Foundation (DEB-1257053) to J.H.W., and Swiss National Science Foundation awards 31003A-125350 and 31003A-143936 to E.M.Z.

Related Content

Data for the Cimex lectularius genome has been deposited in the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Bioproject database under the accession code PRJNA167477. Raw genomic sequence data is deposited in the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ sequence read archive under the accession codes SRX498126, SRX498127, SRX498128, and SRX498129. The genome assembly has been deposited in GenBank under the accession code GCA_000648675.1. RNA-seq datasets used in gene prediction have been deposited to the in GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ sequence read archive under the accession codes SRX906994 and SRX907005.

ncomms10165-s1.pdf (5229 kB)
Supplementary Information. Supplementary Figures 1-42, Supplementary Notes 1-22 and Supplementary References

ncomms10165-s2.xlsx (11 kB)
Supplementary Data 1. Sequencing, assembly, annotation statistics and accession numbers

ncomms10165-s3.xlsx (218 kB)
Supplementary Data 2. A summary of all curated genes, pseudogenes, mRNAs, and pseudogenic transcripts.

ncomms10165-s4.xlsx (8 kB)
Supplementary Data 3. Antioxidant gene families and their function

ncomms10165-s5.xlsx (10 kB)
Supplementary Data 4. Details of antioxidant genes identified from C. lectularius genome.

ncomms10165-s6.xlsx (11 kB)
Supplementary Data 5. Primary and secondary antioxidants genes identified in the bed bug genome. Accession numbers of homologs from Drosophila melanogaster, Rhondnius prolixus, Anopheles gambiae, Pediculus humanus and Tribolium casteneum are shown.

ncomms10165-s7.xlsx (11 kB)
Supplementary Data 6. Details of ClOr family genes and proteins.

ncomms10165-s8.xlsx (10 kB)
Supplementary Data 7. Details of ClIr family genes and proteins.

ncomms10165-s9.xlsx (10 kB)
Supplementary Data 8. Details of ClGr family genes and proteins.

ncomms10165-s10.xlsx (9 kB)
Supplementary Data 9. Clock genes identified in the bed bug genome.

ncomms10165-s11.xlsx (8 kB)
Supplementary Data 10. Number of putative cuticle protein genes per family in the bed bug genome.

ncomms10165-s12.xlsx (9 kB)
Supplementary Data 11. Cuticle protein-encoding gene glusters in the bed bug genome.

ncomms10165-s13.xlsx (9 kB)
Supplementary Data 12. Summary of the repertoire of digestive genes in Cimex lectularius.

ncomms10165-s14.xlsx (9 kB)
Supplementary Data 13. Number of loci within the genomes of arthropod species encoding the five classes of histones.

ncomms10165-s15.xlsx (10 kB)
Supplementary Data 14. Cimex autophagy associated genes.

ncomms10165-s16.xlsx (10 kB)
Supplementary Data 15. Cimex heat shock associated genes.

ncomms10165-s17.xlsx (9 kB)
Supplementary Data 16. Summary information for all annotated Hox genes.

ncomms10165-s18.xlsx (13 kB)
Supplementary Data 17. Putative prepropeptides and peptide receptors predicted from the bed bug genome.

ncomms10165-s19.xlsx (9 kB)
Supplementary Data 18. Putative aminergic receptors predicted from the bed bug genome.

ncomms10165-s20.xlsx (14 kB)
Supplementary Data 19. B vitamin metabolic genes.

ncomms10165-s21.xlsx (8 kB)
Supplementary Data 20. List of UDP-glycosyltransferase genes in Cimex lectularius genome

ncomms10165-s22.xlsx (10 kB)
Supplementary Data 21. Bacterial Scaffolds in the C. lectularius assembly.

ncomms10165-s23.xlsx (10 kB)
Supplementary Data 22. P450 genes identified in the genome.

ncomms10165-s24.xlsx (10 kB)
Supplementary Data 23. ABC Transporters identified in the bed bug genome.

ncomms10165-s25.xlsx (9 kB)
Supplementary Data 24. Carboxyl esterase identified in the bed bug genome.

ncomms10165-s26.xlsx (9 kB)
Supplementary Data 25. Glutathione-s- transferases identified in the bed bug genome.

ncomms10165-s27.xlsx (10 kB)
Supplementary Data 26. Nuclear receptors identified in the bed bug genome.

ncomms10165-s28.xlsx (11 kB)
Supplementary Data 27. Genes related to development and reproduction identified in the bed bug genome.

ncomms10165-s29.xlsx (9 kB)
Supplementary Data 28. BUSCO quality data from the bed bug genome.

ncomms10165-s30.xlsx (144 kB)
Supplementary Data 29. Immune genes from the bed bug genome.

ncomms10165-s31.xlsx (8 kB)
Supplementary Data 30. Sex determination genes.

ncomms10165-s32.xlsx (117 kB)
Supplementary Data 31. Transcription factors with putative DNA binding motifs from the bed bug genome.

ncomms10165-s33.xlsx (21 kB)
Supplementary Data 32. Transcription factors without putative DNA binding motifs from the bed bug genomes.

ncomms10165-s34.xlsx (10 kB)
Supplementary Data 33. Cegma Statistics based on 248 CEGs suggest a high level of completeness for the bedbug genome.