Hemiptera, the largest non-holometabolous order of insects, represents approximately 7% of metazoan diversity. With extraordinary life histories and highly specialized morphological adaptations, hemipterans have exploited diverse habitats and food sources through approximately 300 Myr of evolution. To elucidate the phylogeny and evolutionary history of Hemiptera, we carried out the most comprehensive mitogenomics analysis on the richest taxon sampling to date covering all the suborders and infraorders, including 34 newly sequenced and 94 published mitogenomes. With optimized branch length and sequence heterogeneity, Bayesian analyses using a site-heterogeneous mixture model resolved the higher-level hemipteran phylogeny as (Sternorrhyncha, (Auchenorrhyncha, (Coleorrhyncha, Heteroptera))). Ancestral character state reconstruction and divergence time estimation suggest that the success of true bugs (Heteroptera) is probably due to angiosperm coevolution, but key adaptive innovations (e.g. prognathous mouthpart, predatory behaviour, and haemelytron) facilitated multiple independent shifts among diverse feeding habits and multiple independent colonizations of aquatic habitats.

Document Type


Publication Date


Notes/Citation Information

Published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, v. 284, issue 1862, article ID 20171223, p. 1-10.

© 2017 The Authors.

Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


Funding Information

This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (nos. 31372229, 31401991 and 31420103902), the National Basic Research Program of China (no. 2013CB127600), the Chinese Universities Scientific Fund (nos. 2017QC100, 2017QC066 and 2017ZB002), and a start-up fund from the University of Kentucky.

Related Content

Electronic supplementary material is available online at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.3849793.

The annotated mitogenome sequences of 34 hemipteran insects have been deposited in GenBank (accession numbers shown in electronic supplementary material, table S1). The data supporting this article have been uploaded as the electronic supplementary material and the datasets used in the phylogenetic analyses are available in the Dryad Digital Repository: https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.13m7r.

The information reported in this paper (no. 17-08-055) is part of a project of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and is published with the approval of the Director.

rspb20171223supp1.pdf (14412 kB)
Figures S1-S17.

rspb20171223supp2.xls (114 kB)
Tables S1-S7.