Author ORCID Identifier

Year of Publication


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Document Type

Master's Thesis


Agriculture, Food and Environment



First Advisor

Dr. Clare C. Rittschof

Second Advisor

Dr. Ricardo Bessin


Pesticides, poor nutrition, parasites and diseases work synergistically to contribute to the decline of the honey bee. Heritable sub-lethal behavior/immune effects may also contribute to the decline. Maternal stress is a common source of heritable immune/behavior deficits in many species. A stressed honey bee queen has the potential to pass such deficits on to worker bees. Using a repeated measures design, this study will determine whether the health of worker bee is reduced by a cold stress on the queen by analyzing egg hatch rate and protein content, emergence rate, and adult aggression and immune function for offspring laid before and after the stressor. Results show that queen stress influences egg hatching rate and emergence rate but does not impact egg protein content, adult offspring immune function or aggressive behavior.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)