The two studies presented describe the revision process that led to the development of the Awareness of Privilege and Oppression Scale–2 (APOS-2) and efforts to evaluate the new measure’s reliability and construct validity. In Study 1, a 26-item measure was developed from data gathered from a sample of 484 undergraduate students. An exploratory factor analysis suggested a four-factor solution made up of awareness of racism, sexism, heterosexism, and classism was appropriate. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis suggested the proposed hierarchical four-factor solution was the best available fit of the data using a second sample of 520 undergraduate students. The observed Cronbach alpha reliability estimates for the final 26-item total score and subscale scores in the two presented studies were as follows: Total score (.89, .88), Awareness of Heterosexism (.82, .82), Awareness of Sexism (.76, .76), Awareness of Classism (.81, .82), and Awareness of Racism (.84, .80).
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
McClellan, Michael James; Montross-Thomas, Lori Patricia; Remer, Pamela; Nakai, Yoshie; and Monroe, Addison D., "Development and Validation of the Awareness of Privilege and Oppression Scale-2" (2019). Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology Faculty Publications. 33.