The two studies presented describe the revision process that led to the development of the Awareness of Privilege and Oppression Scale–2 (APOS-2) and efforts to evaluate the new measure’s reliability and construct validity. In Study 1, a 26-item measure was developed from data gathered from a sample of 484 undergraduate students. An exploratory factor analysis suggested a four-factor solution made up of awareness of racism, sexism, heterosexism, and classism was appropriate. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis suggested the proposed hierarchical four-factor solution was the best available fit of the data using a second sample of 520 undergraduate students. The observed Cronbach alpha reliability estimates for the final 26-item total score and subscale scores in the two presented studies were as follows: Total score (.89, .88), Awareness of Heterosexism (.82, .82), Awareness of Sexism (.76, .76), Awareness of Classism (.81, .82), and Awareness of Racism (.84, .80).

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Published in SAGE Open, v. 9, issue 2, p. 1-15.

© The Author(s) 2019

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

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