ZIP load modeling has been used in various power system applications. The aggregate load modeling is common practice in utility companies. However, little research has been done on the theoretical formulation of the aggregate load. This paper formulates the aggregate ZIP load model using the single ZIP load model. The factors that may affect aggregate ZIP load estimation are studied. Common ZIP parameter estimation methods including least squares method, optimization method and neural network method have been used in this paper to estimate ZIP parameters. The case studies are based on the IEEE 13-bus and 34-bus system built in OpenDSS. The ZIP parameter estimation is also performed using field data, and the conservation voltage reduction (CVR) factor is computed based on the estimated ZIP load model.

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Notes/Citation Information

This paper was presented at the PAC World 2021 Conference.

Funding Information 

Financial support from LG&E and KU is greatly appreciated.