Designing energy-efficient and secure cryptographic circuits in low-frequency medical devices are challenging due to low-energy requirements. Also, the conventional CMOS logic-based cryptographic circuits solutions in medical devices can be vulnerable to side-channel attacks (e.g. correlation power analysis (CPA)). In this article, we explored single-rail Clocked CMOS Adiabatic Logic (CCAL) to design an energy-efficient and secure cryptographic circuit for low-frequency medical devices. The performance of the CCAL logic-based circuits was checked with a power clock generator (2N2P-PCG) integrated into the design for the frequency range of 50 kHz to 250 kHz. The CCAL logic gates show an average of approximately 48% energy-saving and more than 95% improvement in security metrics performance compared to its CMOS logic gate counterparts. Further, the CCAL based circuits are also compared for energy-saving performance against dual-rail adiabatic logic, 2-EE-SPFAL, and 2-SPGAL. The adiabatic CCAL gates save on an average of 55% energy saving compared to 2-EE-SPFAL and 2-SPGAL over the frequency range of 50 kHz to 250 kHz. To check the efficacy of CCAL to design a larger cryptographic circuit, we implemented a case-study design of a Substitution-box (S-box) of popular lightweight PRESENT-80 encryption. The case-study implementation (2N2P-PCG integrated into the design) using CCAL shows more than 95% energy saving compared to CMOS for the frequency 50 kHz to 125 kHz and around 60% energy saving at frequency 250 kHz. At 250 kHz, compared to the dual-rail adiabatic designs of S-box based on 2-EE-SPFAL and 2-SPGAL, the CCAL based S-box shows 32.67% and 11.21% of energy savings, respectively. Additionally, the CCAL logic gate structure requires a lesser number of transistors compared to dual-rail adiabatic logic. The case-study implementation using CCAL saves 45.74% and 34.88% transistor counts compared to 2-EE-SPFAL and 2-SPGAL. The article also presents the effect of varying tank capacitance in 2N2P-PCG over energy efficiency and security performance. The CCAL based case-study was also subjected against CPA. The CCAL-based S-box case study successfully protects the revelation of the encryption key against the CPA attack, However, the key was revealed in CMOS-based case-study implementation.
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This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation CAREER Award Number 1845448.
Degada, Amit and Thapliyal, Himanshu, "Single-Rail Adiabatic Logic for Energy-Efficient and CPA-Resistant Cryptographic Circuit in Low-Frequency Medical Devices" (2021). Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate Research. 1.