CRVAW Faculty Journal Articles


Objective: The current study explored whether socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, and rural residence may be linked to poorer cervical cancer survival by stage at diagnosis.

Methods: Data from 7,237 cervical cancer cases reported to the Texas Cancer Registry from 1995–2001 were used to address the association by stage at diagnosis and cause of death. Zip code-level census data were used to classify residence and to develop a composite variable for SES. Multilevel Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios

(HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: Late stage at diagnosis was a strong predictor of cervical cancer mortality (HR _6.2, 95% CI 5.5-7.2). SES and race/ethnicity were independently associated with stage at diagnosis. Women residing in areas with lower SES had significantly shorter survival times when diagnosed at an early stage (HR _ 3.0, 95% CI 2.1-4.3). Hispanic women had a lower probability of dying from cervical cancer during the follow-up period (HR _ 0.7, 95% CI 0.6- 0.8) after adjusting for confounders. The association between lower SES and poorer survival was consistent across all racial/ethnic groups, suggesting the effect of SES may be more important than race.

Conclusions: SES and race/ethnicity were independently associated with poorer cervical cancer survival in this large Texas sample. Further research is needed to investigate the role of optimal treatment and comorbid conditions in the association between SES and cervical cancer survival.

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Notes/Citation Information

Published in Journal of Women’s Health, v. 15, no. 8, 941-951.

This is a copy of an article published in the Journal of Women’s Health © 2006 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.; Journal of Women’s Health is available online at:

Dr. Ann Coker had not been a faculty member of the University of Kentucky at the time of publication.

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