AIM: Variations in the expression of cytokines during the progression of periodontitis remain ill-defined. We evaluated the expression of 19 cytokine genes related to T-cell phenotype/function during initiation, progression and resolution of periodontitis, and related these to the expression of soft and bone tissue destruction genes (TDGs).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A ligature-induced periodontitis model was used in rhesus monkeys (M. mulatta) (n = 18). Gingival tissues were taken at baseline pre-ligation, 2 weeks and 1 month (Initiation) and 3 months (progression) post ligation. Ligatures were removed and samples taken 2 months later (resolution). Total RNA was isolated and the Rhesus Gene 1.0 ST (Affymetrix) used for gene expression analysis. Significant expression changes were validated by qRT-PCR.

RESULTS: Disease initiation/progression was characterized by overexpression of Th17/Treg cytokine genes (IL-1β, IL-6, TGFβ and IL-21) and down-regulation of Th1/Th2 cytokine genes (IL-18 and IL-25). Increased IL-2 and decreased IL-10 levels were seen during disease resolution. Several Th17/Treg cytokine genes positively correlated with TDGs, whereas most Th1/Th2 genes exhibited a negative correlation.

CONCLUSION: Initiation, progression and resolution of periodontitis involve over- and underexpression of cytokine genes related to various T-helper subsets. In addition, variations in individual T-helper response subset/genes during disease progression correlated with protective/destructive outcomes.

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Notes/Citation Information

Published in Journal of Clinical Periodontology, v. 41, issue 9, p. 853-861.

© 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Ebersole JL, Kirakodu S, Novak MJ, Stromberg AJ, Shen S, Orraca L, Gonzalez-Martinez J, Burgos A, Gonzalez OA. Cytokine gene expression profiles during initiation, progression and resolution of periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol 2014; 41: 853-861, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12286. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.

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Funding Information

This work was supported by the National Institute of Health grants P20GM103538 and UL1TR000117.