The migration of Li-ions in lithium-ion battery cannot be simply described by Fick's second law; the interactions among ionic migration, field, and stress need to be taken into account when analyzing the migration of Li-ions. Using the theory of thermal activation process, the flux for ionic migration under concurrent action of electric field and mechanical stress is found to be a nonlinear function of the gradient of electric potential and the gradient of stress. Electric field can either accelerate or retard the growth of the lithiation layer, depending on polarity of the field.
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This work is supported by NSF through the grant number IIA-1355438.
Yang, Fuqian, "Field-Limited Migration of Li-Ions in Li-Ion Battery" (2014). Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications. 50.