Entanglement of states is one of the most surprising and counter-intuitive consequences of quantum mechanics, with potent applications in cryptography and computing. In organic materials, one particularly significant manifestation is the spin-entangled triplet-pair state, which mediates the spin-conserving fission of one spin-0 singlet exciton into two spin-1 triplet excitons. Despite long theoretical and experimental exploration, the nature of the triplet-pair state and inter-triplet interactions have proved elusive. Here we use a range of organic semiconductors that undergo singlet exciton fission to reveal the photophysical properties of entangled triplet-pair states. We find that the triplet pair is bound with respect to free triplets with an energy that is largely material independent (∼30 meV). During its lifetime, the component triplets behave cooperatively as a singlet and emit light through a Herzberg-Teller-type mechanism, resulting in vibronically structured photoluminescence. In photovoltaic blends, charge transfer can occur from the bound triplet pairs with >100% photon-to-charge conversion efficiency.
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We thank the G8 Research Councils Initiative on Multilateral Research Funding (EPSRC EP/K025651; US National Science Foundation CMM1-1255494; Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science). J.C. thanks the University of Sheffield for a VC fellowship. A.J.M., J.C. and S.L.B. thank EPSRC (EP/M025330, EP/M01083X and EP/M025330). The work in Mons is supported by BELSPO through the PAI P6/27 Functional Supramolecular Systems project and by the Belgian National Fund for Scientific Research FNRS/F.R.S. D.B. is a Research Director of FNRS.
Yong, Chaw Keong; Musser, Andrew J.; Bayliss, Sam L.; Lukman, Steven; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Bubnova, Olga; Hallani, Rawad; Meneau, Aurélie; Resel, Roland; Maruyama, Munetaka; Hotta, Shu; Herz, Laura M.; Beljonne, David; Anthony, John E.; Clark, Jenny; and Sirringhaus, Henning, "The Entangled Triplet Pair State in Acene and Heteroacene Materials" (2017). Chemistry Faculty Publications. 99.