OBJECTIVE - To determine altered gene expression profiles in subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle from nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals compared with insulin-sensitive individuals matched for BMI.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 62 nondiabetic individuals were chosen for extremes of insulin sensitivity (31 insulin-resistant and 31 insulin-sensitive subjects; 40 were European American and 22 were African American) and matched for age and obesity measures. Global gene expression profiles were determined and compared between ethnic groups and between insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive participants individually and using gene-set enrichment analysis.
RESULTS - African American and European American subjects differed in 58 muscle and 140 adipose genes, including many inflammatory and metabolically important genes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ cofactor 1A (PPARGC1A) was 1.75-fold reduced with insulin resistance in muscle, and fatty acid and lipid metabolism and oxidoreductase activity also were down-regulated. Unexpected categories included ubiquitination, citrullination, and protein degradation. In adipose, highly represented categories included lipid and fatty acid metabolism, insulin action, and cell-cycle regulation. Inflammatory genes were increased in European American subjects and were among the top Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways on gene-set enrichment analysis. FADS1, VEGFA, PTPN3, KLF15, PER3, STEAP4, and AGTR1 were among genes expressed differentially in both adipose and muscle.
CONCLUSIONS - Adipose tissue gene expression showed more differences between insulin-resistant versus insulin-sensitive groups than the expression of genes in muscle. We confirm the role of PPARGC1A in muscle and show some support for inflammation in adipose from European American subjects but find prominent roles for lipid metabolism in insulin sensitivity independent of obesity in both tissues. Diabetes 60:1019–1029, 2011
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Elbein, Steven C.; Kern, Philip A.; Rasouli, Neda; Yao-Borengasser, Aiwei; Sharma, Neeraj K.; and Das, Swapan K., "Global Gene Expression Profiles of Subcutaneous Adipose and Muscle from Glucose-Tolerant, Insulin-Sensitive, and Insulin-Resistant Individuals Matched for BMI" (2011). Clinical and Translational Science Faculty Publications. 30.