Resting state networks (RSNs) have been found in human brains during awake resting states. RSNs are composed of spatially distributed regions in which spontaneous activity fluctuations are temporally and dynamically correlated. A new computational framework for reconstructing RSNs with human EEG data has been developed in the present study. The proposed framework utilizes independent component analysis (ICA) on short-time Fourier transformed inverse source maps imaged from EEG data and statistical correlation analysis to generate cortical tomography of electrophysiological RSNs. The proposed framework was evaluated on three sets of resting-state EEG data obtained in the comparison of two conditions: (1) healthy controls with eyes closed and eyes open; (2) healthy controls and individuals with a balance disorder; (3) individuals with a balance disorder before and after receiving repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment. In these analyses, the same group of five RSNs with similar spatial and spectral patterns were successfully reconstructed by the proposed framework from each individual EEG dataset. These EEG RSN tomographic maps showed significant similarity with RSN templates derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Furthermore, significant spatial and spectral differences of RSNs among compared conditions were observed in tomographic maps as well as their spectra, which were consistent with findings reported in the literature. Beyond the success of reconstructing EEG RSNs spatially on the cortical surface as in fMRI studies, this novel approach defines RSNs further with spectra, providing a new dimension in understanding and probing basic neural mechanisms of RSNs. The findings in patients' data further demonstrate its potential in identifying biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of neuropsychiatric disorders.

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Published in Frontiers in Neuroscience, v. 12, article 365, p. 1-20.

Copyright © 2018 Li, Yuan, Shou, Cha, Sunderam, Besio and Ding.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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This work was supported in part by NSF CAREER ECCS-0955260, NSF EPSCoR RII Track-2 FEC 1539068, the Laureate Institute for Brain Research, the William K. Warren Foundation, NIH/NIDCD R03 DC010451, and an equipment and study grant from the MdDS Balance Disorders Foundation.