We investigated cellular contributions to intercalary regenerates and 180o supernumerary limbs during axolotl limb regeneration using the cell autonomous green fluorescent protein marker and exchanged blastemas between white and green fluorescent protein animals. After distal blastemas were grafted to proximal levels tissues of the intercalary regenerate behaved independently with regard to the law of distal transformation; graft epidermis was replaced by stump epidermis, muscle-derived cells, blood vessels, and Schwann cells of the distal blastema moved proximally to the stylopodium and cartilage and dermal cells conformed to the law. After 180o rotation, blastemas showed contributions from stump tissues which failed to alter patterning of the blastema. Supernumerary limbs were composed of stump and graft tissues and extensive contributions of stump tissues generated inversions or duplications of polarity to produce limbs of mixed handedness. Tail skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle broke the law with cells derived from these tissues exhibiting an apparent anteroposterior polarity as they migrated to the anterior side of the blastema. We attribute this behavior to the possible presence of a chemotactic factor from the wound epidermis.

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Published in Regeneration, v. 2, issue 3, p. 137-147.

© 2015 The Authors. Regeneration published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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This work was funded by the Regeneration Project at UF and an NIH GO Grant RC2 NS069480.

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