In ruminant livestock species, nutrition can play an important role in the long-term programming of gastrointestinal function. Pancreatic and small intestinal digestive enzymes are important for postruminal digestion of carbohydrates and protein. Carbohydrases have been shown to respond to changes in the level of feed intake and the dietary inclusion of specific nutrients, including arginine, butyrate, folic acid, fructose, and leucine. Understanding how diet influences enzyme development and activity during prenatal and postnatal life could lead to the development of dietary strategies to optimize offspring growth and development to increase digestive efficiency of ruminant livestock species. More research is needed to understand how changes in fetal or neonatal carbohydrase activities in response to nutrition influence long-term growth performance and efficiency in ruminant livestock species to optimize nutritional strategies.

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Published in Animals, v. 11, issue 1, 171.

© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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