Mud robs Kentucky beef and dairy producers of performance from their cattle herds in winter and spring conditions. To help avoid the problems associated with mud and reduced performance, concrete pads or lower-cost all-weather surfaces should be used wherever animals congregate--- feeding areas, animal traffic areas and loafing areas. Although concrete is probably the most desirable surface for durability and low maintenance, an all-weather surface can be constructed of geotextile fabric, rock and fine surface cover for less than 1/3 of the cost of concrete. Rock over bare soil in Kentucky requires approximately 12" of depth for stability. In contrast, by using geotextile fabrics, rock depth can be cut in half and the rock stays in place, cutting down on repeated maintenance.

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