Year of Publication


Document Type





Mechanical Engineering

First Advisor

George P. Huang

Second Advisor

Yu-Ming Zhang


In gas metal arc welding (GMAW), metal transfer plays a crucial role in determining the quality of the resultant weld. In the present dissertation, a numerical model with advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques has been developed first in order to provide better numerical results. It includes a two-step projection method for solving the incompressible fluid flow; a volume of fluid (VOF) method for capturing free surface; and a continuum surface force (CSF) model for calculating surface tension. The Gauss-type current density distribution is assumed as the boundary condition for the calculation of the electromagnetic force. The droplet profiles, electric potential and velocity distributions within the droplet are calculated and presented for different metal transfer modes. The analysis is conducted to find the most dominant effects influencing the metal transfer behavior. Comparisons between calculated results and experimental results for metal transfer under constant current are presented and show good agreement. Then, our numerical model is used to study a proposed modified pulsed current gas metal arc welding. This novel modified pulsed current GMAW is introduced to improve the robustness of the welding process in achieving a specific type of desirable and repeatable metal transfer mode, i.e., one drop per pulse (ODPP) mode. This new technology uses a peak current lower than the transition current to prevent accidental detachment and takes advantage of the downward momentum of the droplet oscillation to enhance the detachment. The calculations are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in achieving the desired metal transfer process in comparison with conventional pulsed current GMAW. Also, the critical conditions for effective utilization of this proposed method are identified by the numerical simulation. The welding operational parameters and their ranges are also calculated and the calculated results further demonstrate the robustness of this new GMAW technique in achieving high quality welding.