Year of Publication

2005

Document Type

Dissertation

College

Arts and Sciences

Department

Physics and Astronomy

First Advisor

Gary J. Ferland

Abstract

This dissertation is a study of the physical conditions in star-forming regions, and combines observational data and theoretical calculations. We studied the physical conditions of Orions Veil, which is an absorbing screen that lies along the line of sight to the Orion H II region. We computed photoionization models of the Veil. We combined calculations with UV, radio, and optical spectra that resolve the Veil into two velocity components. We derive many physical parameters for each component seen in 21 cm absorption. We find the magnetic field energy dominates turbulent and thermal energies in one component while the other component is close to equipartition between turbulent and magnetic energies. We observe H2 absorption for highly excited levels. We find that the low ratio of H2/H0 in the Veil is due to the high UV flux incident upon the Veil. We detect blueshifted S+2 and P+2 ions which must arise from ionized gas between the neutral portions of the Veil and the Trapezium and shields the Veil from ionizing radiation. We determine the ionized and neutral layers of the Veil will collide in less than 85,000 years. The second part of this dissertation involved self-consistently calculating the thermal and chemical structure of an H II region and photodissociation region (PDR) that are in pressure equilibrium. This differs from previous work, which used separate calculations for each gas phase. Our calculations span a wide range of initial conditions. We describe improvements made to the spectral synthesis code Cloudy which made these calculations possible. These include the addition of a molecular network with ~1000 reactions involving 68 molecules and improved treatment of the grain physics. Archival data are used to derive important physical characteristics of observed H II regions and PDRs. These include stellar temperatures, electron densities, ionization parameters, UV flux, and PDR density. The contribution of the H II region to PDR emission line diagnostics is also calculated. Finally, these calculations are used to derive emission line ratios than can tell us the equation of state in star-forming regions.

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