Year of Publication


Document Type



Arts and Sciences



First Advisor

D. Allan Butterfield


The studies described in this dissertation were performed with the goal of understandingthe function of antioxidant compounds delivered in vivo to rodents and the implication of theresults towards oxidative stress (OS)-related neurodegenerative disorders with particularemphasis on Alzheimer's disease (AD). OS has been implicated in AD and is characterized byextensive oxidative damage to protein, lipids and DNA. A major thrust of this dissertation workwas to gain insight into antioxidant properties of compounds used in the following studies andtheir efficacy as potential therapeutics for treatment of OS-related disorders.D609, a glutathione (GSH) mimetic is known to trap OH. Radicals, scavenge H2O2 andreduce the A?? (1-42)-induced OS and cytotoxicity in neurons. The present dissertation studyshowed in vivo protective effect of D609 in synaptosomes and mitochondria isolated fromgerbils against OS mediated by Fe2+/H2O2, AAPH, and A?? (1-42). Upon intraperitonial (i.p.)injection of gerbils, D609 showed protection of subsequently isolated brain moieties against OS.In vivo administration of D609 also modulates brain GSH levels and increases the activity of keyGSH-related enzymes, thereby likely provides a protection against OS.Adriamycin (ADR), a quinone-containing chemotherapeutic, is known to produce ROS inheart. Patients under treatment with ADR often show persistent changes in cognitive function(effect called as chemobrain by patients). Upon i.p. injection, ADR causes OS, increasesexpression of multidrug resistant protein-1 (MRP-1) in brain and alters GSH levels and itsrelated enzyme activities. ??-Glutamyl cysteinyl ethyl ester (GCEE) is known to increase GSHlevels in brain, in vivo. Research reported in this dissertation shows that in vivo GCEE reversesthe ADR-mediated OS in mice brain.N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a GSH precursor provides the limiting substrate cysteine inGSH synthesis. Previously, our laboratory showed increased GSH levels post i.p. injection ofNAC and reduces OS in synaptosomes treated with acrolein. The present study showed thatNAC given in drinking water to APP/PS-1 mice, a model of AD can significantly reduce OS.These results provide a potential therapeutic intervention by antioxidants that can modulateGSH in OS-mediated neurodegenerative disorders.