A livestock watering area includes a watering facility and the heavy-use-area (HUA) surrounding it. Without protection, the HUA can develop surface depressions. Surface depressions can render the watering facility inaccessible and no longer frost-proof. Surface depressions also collect rainwater and excrement, creating mud and conditions adverse to livestock health (Figure 1).
Higgins, Stephen F.; Schmidt, Kylie; Stamper, Donald J.; and Laurent, Kevin, "All-Weather Surfaces for Cattle Watering Facilities" (2015). Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications. 109.